MINDAS 2018 the First Workshop on “Religion”
- 開催日時：2019年2月17日（日）13:00 - 18:00
- 開催場所：国立民族学博物館 第1演習室（本館4階）
- 対 象：研究者以外の参加可
- 13:00 - 13:10
- 13:10 - 14:30
- 14:30 - 14:40
- 14:40 - 16:00
- 16:00 - 16:10
- 16:10 - 17:30
- 17:30 - 18:00
Tibetan Buddhism within Trans-Himalayan Dynamics
This report clarifies the trans-Himalayan dynamics surrounding Tibetan Buddhism in South Asia. First, a review of earlier studies of Tibetan Buddhism in exile contexts is presented, with explanations of how Tibetan Buddhism has been expanding its influence worldwide. According to earlier studies, it can be said that Tibetan Buddhism in the context of exile has exerted its effects through negotiation of factors such as political–economic relationships between the Tibetan government in exile and some governments such as those of China, India, and Nepal, and consumers’ perspectives with desire based on Orientalism.
Second, this report presents an exploration of recent developments that Tibetan Buddhism has experienced in local, regional, and global contexts, by citing some data collected through fieldwork. These data reflect its intracommunal and intercommunal dynamics. Consideration of these issues reveals some conditions related to the recent Tibetan Buddhism in exile: ongoing hybridization of Tibetan Buddhism entailing the increase of Himalayan ethnic influence on it and the secularization of Tibetan nationalism; invasion of devotional politics into the intimate sphere; and expansion of the religious realm through commodification of Mantra CDs.
Discussion of religion and nation-states using the example of Sikh Diaspora
Many people have migrated abroad from Indian Punjab. Reportedly, most of the emigrants are Sikh, who build and manage Sikh temples called gurdwara at their migration destinations. Initially we examined historical and social changes in Punjab before and after the Partition of India and Pakistan to elucidate the Sikh identity background. That investigation revealed how political leaders among the Punjabi Sikhs understood their own circumstances in relation to the central government of newly born India. Through study of the post-Partition politics and society of Punjab, we sought to identify push factors of migration from Indian Punjab.
In the latter half of the presentation, we specifically examined Sikh diaspora communities and their gurdwaras. Results of earlier studies of Sikh diaspora and Indian Punjab demonstrated that unstable circumstances in Indian Punjab influenced both new migrants and those who had already settled abroad, especially in the UK. The Sikh community and their gurdwaras in Canada were explained as a latest example. Furthermore, through observation of the gurdwaras in Canada, we sought each mutual influence among the Indian government, Canadian government, and the gurdwaras abroad. In conclusion, this discussion explained the gurdwaras abroad as complicated spaces to which diverse meanings can be assigned by the migrants and their subsequent generations, the government of India, local governments, and Sikhs in India.
Trustee, State, and Stakeholder: Hindu Temple Management in Contemporary India, 1957–2012
The literature related to temple management in colonial and post-colonial India includes reports of studies that specifically examine the dominant role of trustees and the effects of state intervention. By contrast, this study was conducted through examination of the management history of the Rani Sati temple during 1957–2012 to ascertain the importance of the role of stakeholders in temple management as a bridge between the trustees and the state. After explanation of the historical background of this temple and its managers, the Marwaris, the second section presents analyses of the temple management form from the 1950s to the 1970s and the judicial cases against traditional temple stakeholders, then the chief priest and his family members. Because of the national controversy over sati in the late 1980s, public interest groups emerged as the new stakeholders of the temple. Finally, this paper clarifies state intervention in the temple management according to the influence of new stakeholders. By particularly addressing the role of the stakeholders, this report describes how state intervention can be initiated by the stakeholders. Moreover, it presents the possibility of temple management transformation.