The National Museum of Ethnology (Minpaku) is a research center for ethnology and cultural anthropology.

Senri Ethnological Studies (SES)

No. 83 Chiefs, Hunters and San in the Creation of the Moremi Game Reserve, Okavango Delta; Multiracial Interactions and Initiatives, 1956-1979

June 10, 2013 Publication


back numbers
Preface and Acknowledgements
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Glossary of Setswana Terms


1. Introduction
2. Historiographic Contribution
3. Community Management and Moremi
4. National Parks vs. Game Reserves: the Botswana context
5. Tourism in the Okavango Delta and Moremi

Chapter 1:
The History of Wildlife Conservation and Management in Africa and
in the Context of BOTSWANA

1. Introduction
2. The Evolution of Game Conservation
3. Local Involvement in Conservation-related Activity: A Humanistic Perspective?
4. Settlement and Political Control of Okavango
5. Historical Controls Over Hunting and Wildlife
6. Summary

Chapter 2:
Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Control in the Okavango Delta: 1930s–1960s

1. Introduction
2. Cause and Effects of Disease
3. Tsetse Fly Patterns in Northern Botswana
4. Incidence of Disease
5. Expanding Fly Belts: Tsetse Becomes a 'colonial matter': 1920s–1940s
6. The Tsetse Control Department and its Operations
7. The Period of Discriminative Bush Clearing
8. Tsetse Control and Wider Development Planning in Ngamiland
9. Game Reserves, Hunting and Tsetse Eradication
10. Game Policy and Promotion of the Safari Industry and the Creation of Game Reserves

Chapter 3:
Key Players: Achieving Consensus on the Fauna Conservation Society and
Moremi Game Reserve

1. Introduction
2. June and Robert Kay—White Hunters Turned Conservationists
3. Crocodile Hunting
4. The Local Skills and Knowledge of the 'River San/BaSarwa'
5. The Relationship between the Kays and the Officials
6. The Kays and the Tawana Tribal Authority
7. Concerns about Illicit Hunting Activities in the Khwai Region
8. The Formation of the Fauna Preservation Society of Ngamiland
9. Official Response—Getting the Africans and White Residents of Maun to Accept the Fauna Preservation Society in Ngamiland
10. Second Formal Meeting of the Society at Riley's Hotel: African Support

Chapter 4:
The Fauna Conservation Society, the Kgotla and the Government

1. Introduction
2. The kgotla
3. The BaTawana Tribal Council
4. The kgotla and Tribal Council Approval of the Fauna Preservation Society in Ngamiland
5. Official Launching of the Fauna Preservation Society of Ngamiland and the Plan of Action
6. Local Government Officials, Safari Firms and the Park
7. African 'house-to-house' Campaign Strategy for the Creation of a Game Reserve and the Government's Change of Heart
8. The Riney/Hill FAO/IUCN Report
9. 'Weight Carriers' and the Projected Game Reserve

Chapter 5:
Control and Management of the Moremi Game Reserve in the Early 1960s

1. Introduction
2. The Physical Environment of Moremi
3. The Park Regulations
4. The Boundaries and Policing
5. From 'preservation' to 'conservation', and the Tourism Policy
6. South African and International Interest
7. The Tinley/Deane Ecological Survey

Chapter 6:
Conflicts over Financial and Technical Control: the Kays, the WWF,
the Fauna Conservation Society and the Government

1. Introduction
2. Financial Problems
3. Anti-Kay Sentiment
4. The FCS and the WWF
5. The Tinley Report
6. Postscript: the FCS after Independence

Chapter 7:
The Basarwa of the Okavango Delta and the Park: the Case of the Bugakhwe

1. Introduction
2. The BaSarwa Concept of Territoriality and their Occupation of the Okavango
3. Traditional Subsistence Strategies: Movements between the Riverine Area and Sandveld
4. Bugakhwe Neighbours in 'old Khwai' and Tsetse
5. Significance of the Xuku Floodplains (Hippo pools)
6. BaSarwa Perceptions and Memories of the Foundation of Moremi
7. Summary
Bibliographical Note
List of Maps, Figures, Tables and Photos