Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology
October 31, 2018 Publicationback numbers
- Anagarika Dharmapala’s Bodh Gaya Restoration Movement: From Universal Brotherhood to Sinhalese Buddhist Nationalism
- Context for Translation of Muen, Yuen, and En: Case for Tolai Society in Papua New Guinea
- Research Resources
- Development and Current Status of Japanese Cheering Organizations: Data Analysis of Four-Year College Cheering Groups, Ouendan
Anagarika Dharmapala’s Bodh Gaya Restoration Movement:
From Universal Brotherhood to Sinhalese Buddhist Nationalism
This paper discusses the Buddhist Revival Movement, initiated by theSinhala Buddhist activist, Anagarika Dharmapala （1864–1933）, in Bodh Gaya between 1891 and 1910. In January of 1891, Dharmapala visited Bodh-Gaya, and acquired the revelatory mission of restoring the sacred place. In May of that year he would found the Maha-Bodhi Society, and organize the network of a global Buddhist movement for restoring Bodh-Gaya.
In this paper, new light will be shed on this issue through materials from the government of India and the Hindu society in those days.
A three-way relationship emerged from Dharmapala’s movement to restore the Maha-Bodhi temple at Bodh Gaya. First, Dharmapala, who founded the Maha-Bodhi Society in 1891 and organized the global Bodh-Gaya restoration movement to reclaim the temple in the hands of Buddhists. Second, a Mahant, the abbot of a Hindu monastery and the owner of the temple properties who is authorized by the British colonial government, severely opposed Dharmapala’s movement and his attempt to install an image of Buddha donated by Japanese Buddhists inside the temple. Third, the British government in India tried to mediate the issue between Mahant and Dharmapala despite their neutral policy towards religious matters in the local society.
After the high court judgement, which recognized Mahant as the rightful owner, the British government gradually deepened their concern towards Dharmapala and intervened in his activities, which finally led to the withdrawal of the base of Maha-Bodhi Society from Bodh-Gaya.
As a result, the movement had paved the way for a Sinhalese Buddhist movement within the British colony of Ceylon, which led to the origin of Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism towards an exclusive movement against religious minorities.
Key Words：Dharmapala, Sinhalese Buddhist Nationalism, Maha-Bodhi Society, Hindu Society, British Indian Government
Context for Translation of Muen, Yuen, and En:
Case for Tolai Society in Papua New Guinea
Anthropology practiced in Japanese and characterised by ‘double translation’ presents prospects for solving ‘centre–periphery’ or asymmetry difficulties between Western and non-Western knowledge production. Cultural translation of Japanese folklore concepts in other societies is one way to realise its prospects. Translation to Tolai society in Papua New Guinea is examined in this study, with muen (unrelated), yuen (related), and en (relation) as discussed by historian Yoshihiko Amino. Specifically addressing commodity and gift exchange, which Amino discussed with the theory of ‘unrelated’, possessive expression is demonstrated as one ideal context for cultural translation of muen, yuen, and en. Subsequently, exchange deemed in the Medieval Japan where an object was magically unrelated to the possessor is illustrated, whereas Tolai society exchange objects are not bodily related. Unlike Medieval Japanese society, objects related to possessors can be exchanged, but they greatly transform the social status of participants via exchange. These findings shed new light on some cultural aspects of one’s own and other societies, unlike ‘centre’ in knowledge production.
Key Words：knowledge production, muen, cultural translation, possessive expression, exchange
Development and Current Status of Japanese Cheering Organizations:
Data Analysis of Four-Year College Cheering Groups, Ouendan
This paper presents an exploration of how Japanese cheering organizations change and an examination of their current status through cases of cheering groups, ouendan, at four-year universities and colleges in Japan. The data used for this study were collected and organized mainly from print media published mostly by the respective cheering groups, along with various information from websites and social network services operated by the groups or, in some cases, the respective alumni associations. Through these analyses, general characteristics of the cheering groups were revealed: origins and expansion, radical shifts after World War II coinciding with post-war university reforms, recent innovations of typical types of three-part compositions of cheering groups (leader section, cheerleading section, brass band section) and their rather independence-oriented position among student associations.
Key Words：cheer, cheering group, student association, university and college, extracurricular activity