国立民族学博物館研究報告 1999 23巻4号

目 次
The Eighth International Conference on Hunting and Gathering Societies (CHAGS8)

P.J. Matthews,
J. Tanaka
S. Koyama

Ainu and the Salmon
Shigeru Kayano
Hunter-Gatherer Studies and the Millennium:A Look Forward (And Back)
Richard Lee
Hunter-Gatherers in First World Nation States:Bringing Anthropology Home
Nicolas Peterson
Analyzing and Celebrating Survival in a Globalizing World:Hunters, Others and Us
Harvey A. Feit
『国立民族学博物館研究報告』23巻 総目次





Tachikawa, Musashi
Materials for Iconographic Studies of Newar Dharmadhatu Mandalas
Matthews,P. J.
The Eighth International Conference on Hunting
and Gathering Societies (CHAGS 8)
Kayano, Shigeru
Ainu and the Salmon
Lee, Richard
Hunter-Gatherer Studies and the Millennium: A Look Forward (And Back)
Peterson, Nicolas
Hunter-Gatherers in First World Nation States: Bringing Anthropology Home
Feit, Harvey A.
Analyzing and Celebrating Survival in a Globalizing World: Hunters, Others and Us


立 川 武 蔵*
Materials for Iconographic Studies of
Newar Dharmadhatu Mandalas
Musashi Tachikawa

ネパールのカトマンドゥ盆地には今日,ネワール人の間に密教の要素を多分に含む大乗仏教が見られる。ネワール仏教には数多くのマンダラの作例が残る一方で,今も伝統に従ってマソダラが描かれている。ネワール仏教の寺院境内などにほ銅などの金属や石の円盤の上に線刻されたマンダラ図が見られる が,この様式はネワール特有のものと思われる。ネワール仏教マンダラの内,はっかいごじざいもっともよく知られたものの一つに,法界語自在文殊のマンダラがある。本稿は,カトマンドゥ盆地内において有名な法界マンダラの作例としてハク・バハール寺院,ノ・ノミハー ル寺院,ブ・バハール寺院のマンダラを取りあげ,その線刻された図像を大乗仏教図像学の基礎資料として提供しようとするものである。

The present paper is intended to furnish materials for iconographic studies of the Newar Buddhist mandalas found in the Kathmandu Valley.A large number of mandalas depicted on copper or stone plates are installed at various places,such as the court yard of a Newar Buddhist temple, or at a crossroads in a town.
The Newar people inherited Mahayana Buddhism together with its iconographic tradition from India, before Indian Mahayana Buddhism disappeared in the thirteenth century A.D.. The varieties of Newar Buddhist mandalas found in the Kathmandu Valley are almost identical to those of the Indian Buddhist mandalas explained in texts, such as the Nispannayogāvalī or the Vajrāvalĩ. Even today Newar painters con-tinue drawing mandalas according to their tradition, which is very similar to the Indian one.
The Dharmadhātuvāgīśvara Mañjuśrī Mandala is one of the most well-known manadalas in the Kathmandu Valley. In this paper we will consider the Dharmadhātuvāgīśvara ( or Dharmadhātu ) mandalas of three Newar Buddhist temples in Patan City, namely, the Haka Bahal, the Na Bahal, and the Bu Bahal. The images of the deities depicted on these three mandalas are iconographically in accordance with the description given in the Dharmadhātu Chapter of the Nispannayogāvalī ,with some exceptions.

* 国立民族学博物館民族社会研究部
Key Words: Newar Buddhism, Kathmandu, mandala, Dharmadhatu Mandala, Manjushri
キーワード: ネワール仏教,カトマンドゥ, マンダラ,法界(ほっかい )マンダラ,文殊

 1. カトマンドゥ盆地における法界マンダラ資料
 2. 法界マンダラの構造
 3. ハク・バハールの法界マンダラ
 4. ノ・バハールの法界マンダラ
 5. ブ・バハールの法界マンダラ

The Eighth International Conference on Hunting
and Gathering Societies (CHAGS8)
P.J. Matthews, J. Tanaka and S. Koyama

Ainu and the Salmon
Shigeru Kayano*
萱野 茂

For some100years, the Ainu have been banned from catching any significant number of salmon in Hokkaido, although the fish is one of their staple foods. Currently, about 50 million of the same fish are caught each year by Japanese fishermen in the waters of Hokkaido. The Ainu at Noboribetsu are legally allowed to take only 5fish, and those at Sapporo only 20 fish, per year. The Ainu people have formed a social movement to ask theJapanese government for recognition of theiri ndigenous right to fish for salmon.


* Kayano Museum of Ainu Culture
Key Words: Ainu, salmon, indigenous rights, Japanese government, staple food
キーワード: アイヌ,サケ,先住民権,日本政府,主食

Hunter-Gatherer Studies and the Millennium:
A Look Forward (And Back)**
Richard Lee*
リチャード リー

Like the subjects of its study, the field of hunter-gatherers has shown a remarkable capacity for survival. Making two thousand years on the Christian calender may have no necessary resonance with the calendrical systems of the Evenki, the Nayaka, the Arrente, or the Cree.
Nevertheless as hunter-gatherers ( along with everybody else ) are absorbed into “global”culture, it is approprite that we take stock of foragers’ present condition and future prospects, and at the same time assess the successes and failures of the scholarly field that has developed around them. It is remarkable that in spite of economic globalization, bureaucratic domination, and assaults on the cultural integrity of the world’s “ small peoples”something of value has persisted. Against all odds, these societies have maintained some portion of their life-worlds outside of the capitalist world system, showing that even in this hard-bitten age of globalization other ways of being are possible.
Simultaneously, indigenous peoples have emerged as actors on local, regional, and international, political stages. The challenge of the new millennium for hunter-gatherer scholars is therefore three-fold : to appreciate how hunter-gatherers operate in the world and yet apart from it ; to respect the sheer diversity of contemporary hunter-gatherer lifeways and adaptations, and finally to acknowledge that sound scholarship must be combined with ethical and political responsibility to the people whose lives we chromicle.


*University of Toronto
**Paper presented as a keynote address, at the Eighth Conference on Hunting and Gathering Societies, National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, Japan, October 26, 1998. The author wishes to thank Richard Daly, Laura Rival,Robert Hitchcock and Kirk Endicott for considerable input into this paper. This paper is drawn largely from the Introduction to the‘Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers’edited by Richard Lee and Richard Daly (1999 ) .
Key Words: hunter-gatherer studies, fourth world, CHAGS8, the Millennium, indigenou srights, history of anthropology
キーワード: 狩猟採集民研究,第4世界,チャグス8,千年期,先住民権,人類学の歴史

 Social Life and Worldview
 The Importance of History
 Hunter-Gatherer Studies Today
 A New Generation of Research
 Foragers at the Millennium

Hunter-Gatherers in First World Nation States:
Bringing Anthropology Home
Nicolas Peterson*
ニコラス ピーターソン

Anthropologists working at home were, for a long time, considered the poor cousins of their peers working abroad. Somehow they were perceived to have failed the test of travelling out of the comfort zone of their own society and grappling with a radically different other where the real theoretical and ethnographic contributions to anthropology were to be made. Anthropology at home was seen as an anthropology of social issues, drawing anthropologists uncomfortably close to sociology, policy oriented studies and applied research and away from the possibility of theoretically significant contributions. Times have changed, however, as has the discipline. I shall argue that research with fourth world peoples is a distinctive, if limited, field of study which is likely to persist for a considerable time yet and that it is fertile ground for social theory. I will outline what I see as some of the theoretical issues central to this field in the coming decades.


*Australian National University
Key Words: hunter-gatherer studies, autonomy of culture, fourth world , social reproduction, Australia, anthropology at home, welfare colonialism
キーワード: 狩猟採集民研究,文化の自律性,第4世界,社会の再生産,オーストラリア,自国での人類学,福祉植民地主義

 Liberal Democratic Theory and the Politics
 of Indigenism
 The State and the Unwitting Reproduction of
  Indigenous Social Orders
 The State and the Witting Reproduction of
 Indigenous Social Orders
 Contemporary Research Enviroment
 The Problem of Culture

Analyzing and Celebrating Survival in a Globalizing World:
Hunters, Others and Us
Harvey A. Feit*
ハーヴェイ フェイト

The intellectual excitement, the maturity, and the scholarly and public importance of hunter-gatherer studies were apparent throughout the conference. Highlights of the conference were hearing from Ainu People about their urgent situation, and also listening to the important contributions of third world scholars. An emerging theme of the conference was the active survival of these societies and of diverse cultural traditions in a globalizing world. I suggest that these contemporaneous experiences of challenges and renewals unite the lives of scholars and of the peoples of the societies with which they work. In conclusion, I offer thanks, for all the conference participants, to the Japanese hosts for their truly extraordinary efforts and success at making CHAGS 8 so intellectually stimulating, and culturally and personally enriching.


*McMaster Universlty
Key Words:hunters and gatherers, cultural survival, globalization, Minpaku, Ainu
キーワード: 狩猟老と採集老,文化の生き残り,グローバリゼーショ ソ,民博,アイヌ

 Appreciation and Thank You
 Complex Research Linkages:
 Past and Present
 My Questions : Our Futures