国立民族学博物館研究報告 2003 28巻2号

目 次
―民族学博物館は21 世紀に存在しうるか―
齋藤  晃
福岡 正太


Takezawa, Shoichiro
Museums of Ethnology Today: Can Museums of Ethnology
exist in the 21st Century?
Saito, Akira
Waging War, Propagating the Faith: The Predatory Expansion
of the Jesuit Missions in South America
Fukuoka, Shota
Fumio Koizumi’s Study of Japanese Traditional Musicas
the Starting Point of His Ethnomusicological Research
Ma, Jianzhao
Historical Origin & Social Transformation of the Hui
Nationality of Hainan Province: A Historical & Anthropological
Study of Two Hui Nationality Villages of
Yanglan Town, Sanya City


―民族学博物館は21 世紀に存在しうるか―
竹 沢 尚一郎*
Museums of Ethnology Today: Can Museums of Ethnology exist in the 21st Century?
Shoichiro Takezawa

19 世紀後半に欧米諸国であいついで建設された民族学博物館は,新しい学問領域としての民族学・文化人類学の確立に大きく貢献した。植民地拡大の絶頂期であったこの時期,民族学博物館の展示は,器物の展示を通じて近代西欧を頂点におく諸民族・諸人種の進化を跡づけようとする,イデオロギー的性格の強いものであった。
やがて,文化人類学における文化相対主義・機能主義の発展とともに,民族学博物館の展示も,当該社会の文化的コンテキストを重視するものになっていった。そして,西暦2000 年前後に,ヨーロッパの多くの民族学博物館はその展示を大幅に変えたが,その背景にあったのは,「他者」を再現=表象することの政治的・倫理的課題をめぐる民族学内部の議論であった。

Museums of Ethnology constructed in Western countries in the late 19th century contributed greatly to the establishment of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology as new fields of study. As this era was the peak of Western colonial expansion, the exhibitions of the Museums of Ethnology were colored by the ideology of that time. The main trend of these Museums was to represent the evolution of ethnic groups or “Races” whose summit was reserved for West European societies.
Since the 1930s, theoretical innovation in Anthropology and Ethnology has changed the methods of exhibition in Museums of Ethnology. Cultural Relativism and Functionalism, which attached importance to the cultural contexts of each society, have gained prominence in the exhibitions of Museums of Ethnology. By about 2000, the exhibitions in these Museums have changed drastically in order to respond to criticisms of post-colonialism. The back ground to these changes was the debate over the political and moral issues of representing ‘Others.’
* 国立民族学博物館博物館民族学研究部
Key Words: Museum of Ethnology, History of Ethnology, Cultural Resources, Colonialism, Ethnocentrism
キーワード: 民族学博物館,民族学の歴史,植民地主義,自民族中心主義,文化資源
1 はじめに―人類博物館から初期美術館へ
2 創設期の民族学博物館とその展示
3 今日の民族学博物館
4 異文化展示の困難
5 結論


齋 藤   晃*
Waging War, Propagating the Faith: The Predatory Expansion of the Jesuit Missions in South America
Akira Saito

スペインによる新大陸の植民地化事業は,メキシコとアンデスの軍事的制圧と統治機構の整備が一段落したのち,北米南西部,アマゾン川流域,パラグアイなどの辺境地域へ前線を進めていく。当時,それらの地域には大規模な政治組織は存在せず,先住民はいくつもの小規模な集団に分裂し,互いに戦争を繰り返していた。17 世紀以降,辺境地域の植民地化を委託された修道会は,先住民の戦争を福音伝道の障害とみなし,それに終止符を打とうとした。「平和の天使」を自称する宣教師は,戦争を終結し平和をもたらすことで,キリスト教的規範に則した社会を建設しようとした。本論は,宣教師の言明とは反対に,ミッション建設事業が戦争の否定のうえに成り立つのではなく,むしろ戦争を拡張の原動力として内部に取り込んでいたことを証明するものである。ミッションとは,戦争を通じて異教徒を包摂し,拡張することを存在目的とする捕食的拡張組織なのである。

After the native kingdoms of Mexico and the Andes were conquered and the colonial regime was firmly established, the Spanish colonization of America proceeded to the frontier regions such as the North American Southwest, the Amazonia, Paraguay, etc. In these regions the Spaniards found no large-scale political organizations. The native population was fragmented into a large number of small settlements that were constantly at war among themselves. From the 17th century, the religious orders assumed the task of colonizing the frontiers. They saw the native state of warfare as a major obstacle to Christianization and made every effort to put an end to it. As self-professed “Angles of Peace”, the missionaries tried to end war, bring peace and construct a society that accords perfectly with the Christian norms and ideals. This article, however, makes the opposite claim from that of the missionaries, namely that their enterprise turned out to be successful because it was based, not on the negation of war, but on its affirmation. The article seeks to prove that war was the prime mover of the missions’ expansive movement. The missions were in reality organizations of predatory expansion whose raison d’être was to invade, incorporate and expand.
* 国立民族学博物館博物館民族学研究部
Key Words: Spanish America, mission, frontier, warfare, slavery
キーワード: スペイン領アメリカ,ミッション,辺境,戦争,奴隷制

1 辺境制度としてのミッション
2 パクス・ヘスイティカ
3 平和的宣教
4 宣教における暴力
5 異教時代の戦争
6 遠征における異教徒の捕獲
7 捕食的拡張組織


福 岡 正 太*
Fumio Koizumi’s Study of Japanese Traditional Music
as the Starting Point of His Ethnomusicological Research
Shota Fukuoka

小泉が音楽研究を志した敗戦直後の日本社会において,多くの知識人が邦楽を封建的,非合理的,低俗なものとしていた。それを最もよく象徴したのが,1949 年,東京音楽学校が東京美術学校と統合され東京芸術大学として発足するときに邦楽科を廃止しようとした案だった。当時の東京音楽学校校長の小宮豊隆は,邦楽は新しい日本音楽創造の基礎とはなりえないとした。それに対して,日本音楽研究者である吉川英史は,邦楽にも洋楽に劣らない独自の価値があると論じ,邦楽科設置を訴えた。結局,東京芸術大学には邦楽科が設置されることになったが,復興をめざす日本社会における邦楽の存在価値をめぐる議論は,吉川を通じて小泉に大きな影響を与えた。
小泉は,洋楽を愛好していたが,東京大学で吉川の講義を受け,日本伝統音楽の研究に取り組み始めた。しかし,小泉が対象として取り上げたのは,吉川があまり関心を払わなかったわらべ歌をはじめとする民俗音楽だった。小泉は,民俗音楽は日本音楽の基層文化,すなわち個別性の強い邦楽の諸ジャンルの共通の基礎にある日本人の基本的音感を体現するものと捉えた。その研究方法として小泉がとったのは比較音楽学の方法である。彼は,音楽の研究を歌詞の文学的内容で置き換える従来の内容主義を退けて,主としてヨーロッパの音楽理論の立場において,音組織の「客観的な」認識を目指した。それは日本の 伝統音楽を「音楽」として統一的に把握したいという態度の表れでもあった。小泉は,さらに,洋楽と邦楽の2 項対立をこえるために,第3 の視点として世界のさまざまな音楽との比較によりそれぞれを相対化して捉えることを目指していった。

Fumio Koizumi (1927-1983) is known for pioneering ethnomusicology in Japan. His first book Nihon Dento Ongaku no Kenkyu (A Study on Japanese Traditional Music, 1958) is one of his most important research outcomes which throw light on the basic scale structure of Japanese traditional music. This paper aims to examine his approach to Japanese traditional music and argues that it characterizes his ethnomusicological research afterwards.
When Koizumi decided to pursue a career as a musicologist just after the end of the Second World War, many Japanese intellectuals evaluated Japanese traditional music as “feudal”, “irrational”, or “vulgar”. Demonstrating this was a plan to eliminate the department of Japanese traditional music from the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music when it was founded by uniting the Tokyo Academy of Music and Tokyo Academy of Arts in 1949. Toyotaka Komiya, then the director of Tokyo Academy of Music said Japanese traditional music could not be a basis for the creation of New Japanese music. Eishi Kikkawa, a researcher of Japanese music, argued that Japanese traditional music had a peculiar value not inferior to Western music and insisted on the establishment of the department. At last, they established the department based on a resolution of the Diet. The discussion about the significance of Japanese traditional music in the process of postwar rehabilitation influenced Koizumi.
Koizumi, who had a liking for Western music from his childhood, began to take an interest in Japanese traditional music after attending lectures given by Kikkawa at Tokyo University. Koizumi chose Japanese folk music including children’s songs as his object of research, to which Kikkawa did not pay much attention. Koizumi thought folk music embodied a fundamental layer of Japanese music, or the basic musicality of the Japanese which underlay many different genres of traditional music. He studied it with a method of comparative musicology. He denied the then common approach which replaced the study of music with that of its literary content and aimed for “objective” recognition of its tone system. This reflected his desire to grasp many different genres as belonging to the same category of “music”. Furthermore, in order to overcome the dichotomy between Western and Japanese music, he intended to take a third perspective by comparing them with other music from around the world.
While the name of comparative musicology was replaced by ethnomusicology in Western Europe and North America during the 1950’s and researchers came to emphasize the study of music in culture, Koizumi kept his basic method of studying music by comparing various kinds of music of the world. On the one hand he assumed Japanese traditional music reflects national characteristics of the Japanese, on the other hand he believed we could understand different kinds of music of the world on a common ground of “music”. This attitude had continued to characterize his ethnomusicological research.
* 国立民族学博物館博物館民族学研究部
Key Words: Fumio Koizumi, comparative musicology, folk music, ethnomusicology
キーワード: 小泉文夫,比較音楽学,民俗音楽,民族音楽学

1 小泉の日本音楽との出会い
1.1 吉川の講義を通じて日本音楽と出会う
1.2 日本音楽を実際に学びはじめる
1.3 町田嘉章との出会い
1.4 『音楽事典』の編集
1.5 『フィルハーモニー』連載
2 東京音楽学校邦楽科廃止論にみる洋楽と邦楽
2.1 邦楽科廃止論争
2.2 東京音楽学校校長の邦楽科廃止論
2.3 吉川英史の邦楽科擁護論
2.4 『日本音楽の性格』
3 日本の伝統音楽研究の方法論
3.1 近世邦楽と民俗音楽
3.2 基層文化と民俗音楽
3.3 民謡研究の方法
3.4 小泉の比較音楽学
3.5 比較音楽学,音楽民族学,音楽人類学
4 小泉の民族音楽学の特徴
4.1 出発点としての日本の伝統音楽
4.2 小泉のフィールドワーク
4.3 音楽と民族性:音楽の二律背反


海南回族的历史来源与社会变迁 ―对海南省三亚市羊栏镇两回族村的历史学与人类学的考察―
Historical Origin & Social Transformation of the Hui Nationality
of Hainan Province: A Historical & Anthropological Study of
Two Hui Nationality Villages of Yanglan Town, Sanya City
Ma Jianzhao

中国の南端にある海南島三亜市羊欄鎮回輝村,回新村は,海南省内で唯一の回族集居地である。2002 年には,1218 戸,6,400 人の回族人口を有していた。1983 年12 月から2003 年3 月までの間に,筆者は合計8 回にわたって回輝,回新両村でのフィールドワークを行った。本稿は,このフィールドワーク資料を基に,歴史学,人類学,考古学,言語学の関連資料をも参照しながら,海南回族の歴史来源および羊欄回族コミュニティーの社会変化の過程について論じようとするものである。
海南島の回族には,2 つの主要な来源がある。一つは唐宋時代に中国に来住したアラビア人商人であり,もう一つは宋元二代に占城(チャンパ)から移住してきたイスラム教徒である。
明末清初から1943 年までの間は,三亜里という地点が羊欄回族の唯一の集居地であった。1943 年には,日本軍がこの地点に飛行場を建設したために,当地の回族は現在の回輝村に移転させられた。1945 年の終戦の後,回族の一部はもとの村に戻り,地名を回新と改め,こうして現在の回輝・回新両村落からなる回族コミュニティーができあがった。
羊欄の回族社会では,1980 年代になって経済,文化等の方面で非常に大きな変化が生じた。80 年代後半には,三亜市の発展にともなってコミュニティー全体に衆人の注目を集める一大変化が生じたが,その主要なものは以下の四方面の変化である。
回輝,回新両村は海辺に位置していたので,回族の人々は代々魚を捕ることを主要な生活手段としてきた。漁船は小型で性能の低いものだったので,沖合い漁業には適さず,収入は少なかったので,回族の人々の生活は極めて貧しかった。1987 年の両村住民の平均年収は200 元強であり,羊欄鎮の中でも最も低収入の村であった。
1987 年に三亜が県レベルから地区レベルの市に昇格した後,省政府は「三亜を現代的国際ビーチリゾート都市に」という全体目標を掲げ,これによって不動産開発ブームと観光産業の隆盛が引き起こされた。羊欄の回族はこの機を捉え,一連の経済活動に取り組み,わずか十数年のうちには運送業,観光販売・サービス業,青果の卸し・小売業を筆頭に,多様な経営活動を含む新たな経済発展の局面が到来して,この村は鎮の中でも最も裕福な村へと変身したのである。
1980 年代以前には,回族コミュニティーの住民は,中国農村一般と同じく「靠山吃山,靠海吃海」(山にあれば山の幸を食べ,海にあれば海の幸を食べる)の伝統的な自然経済観念を墨守していた。80 年代に中国が改革開放を実行して以降,回族の人々は「法律・道徳に触れない限り,金の稼げることならなんでもする」という価値観をもつようになった。そして,回族コミュニティーの経済状況は,量的変化と,質的飛躍を成し遂げたのである。
まず,モスクの再建・新設を,伝統文化の発揚上の最重要事項とし,1990 年代には,6 個のモスクが次々と再建・新設された。
また,地元での宗教的人材の養成を重視し,80 年代以来,十数名の優秀な青年を,サウジアラビア,イランなどの国家のイスラム学校へ留学させ,帰国後は各モスクで,教長や,アホンを担当したり,宗教教育活動に従事したりしている。

Huihui Village and Huixin Village, located in Yanglan Town, Sanya City, Hainan Island in south China, are the two only compact communities of Hui Nationality in Hainan Province. In 2002, there were 1218 households of Hui Nationality and 6400 Hui people lived there. From December 1983 to March 2003, the author visited these two villages 8 times in succession to do field research. In this article, the author will try to analyze the historical origin of the Hui Nationality of Hainan Province and the social transformation of the Hui community of Yanglan Town based on material obtained through fieldwork and other data of history, anthropology, archaeology and linguistics.
There are two main origins of the Hui Nationality of Hainan. One consisted of Arabian merchants who came to China during the Tang and Song Dynasties. The other consisted of Muslims who immigrated from Zhancheng in Vietnam during the Song and Yuan Dynasties.
During the Tang and Song Dynasties, many Muslim Arabian merchants came to Guangzhou, Quanzhou and other coastal cities of China along “the Silk Road on the Sea” to do business. Hainan was then an important destination for Arabian merchant vessels. During these times, some of those Arabian merchants were forced to stay in Lingshui, Wanning, Ya County (now named Sanya City) and some other coastal regions in the south-east part of Hainan due to typhoons or the attacks of pirates. As time went by, most of the offspring of these Arabian businessmen were assimilated into the local Han, Li and Miao Nationalities. Some other descendants developed into the ancestors of the Hui Nationality of Yanglan Town.
During the Song and Yuan Dynasties, many Muslims from Zhancheng, Vietnam immigrated into Dan County, Ya County, Wanning and some other coastal areas of Hainan in order to avoid the turmoils of typhoons and wars.
The majority of those Muslims living in Dan County and Wanning are assimilated into other local nationalities. The offspring of the Muslims dwelling mainly in Ya County moved to Suosanya Li (now the site of Huixin Village, Yanglan Town, Sanya City) of Ya County about the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty. They formed a Hui community with a collective dwelling place, joint economic livelihood, a common language and customs there.
Between the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, Suosanya Li was the only compact community of Hui Nationality in Yanglan Town. In 1943, they were forced to move to Huihui Village because the Japanese army planned to construct an airport there. When the war ended in 1945, some of them moved back and named it “Huixin”, and thus these two compact communities of Hui Nationality came into being.
The economy and culture of these communities saw no great changes from the time they settled there to the beginning of the 1980s. But in the late 1980s, the whole community changed greatly along with the urbanization of Sanya City as follows:
1. Reformation of industrial structure
Huihui Village and Huixin Village are both located on the seacoast. Fishing was the traditional means to make a living for generations. Because the boats were small, poorly constructed and not suitable for deep sea fishing, the people couldn’t earn enough to make ends meet and they lived a very miserable life. In 1987, the average annual income per person in these two villages was RMB200 or so, the lowest in Yanglan Town.
After Sanya was elevated from a city of county level to a city of prefecture level in 1987, the Hainan Provincial government put forward the overall goal of “transforming Sanya into a modernized international seacoast tourist city”. This brought about a tide of development of real estate and a blooming of the local tourist industry. The Hui people of Yanglan took advantage of this great opportunity to carry out a range of economic activities during this period. Just in a few years, they formed a new economic pattern with such leading industries as traffic services, tourism, trade and the whole & retail sale of fruit and vegetables. Now these two villages are the richest in Yanglan Town.
2. Transformation of life styles
The increase of income caused the transformation of life styles.
Change of living environment: Low thatched cottages have been replaced by tile-roofed houses and multi-storied buildings.
Improvement of traffic conditions: Motor vehicles have been used widely to substitute for walking or cycling.
Diversification and improvement in quality of daily necessities.
3. Innovation in values and behavioral orientation.
Before the 1980s, the members of the Hui Communities cherished the traditional values of the natural economy: “those living on a mountain live off the mountain, those living near the water live off the water”, just like the inhabitants of other Chinese rural areas. After the “Reformation and Opening to the World” of China in the 1980s, the members of the Hui Nationality began to uphold the different value “every profession is good as long as it can produce a profit and won’t violate the law and discipline.” The transformation of their values did much to help in the improvement of the local economy and society.
Along with the innovation in values and behavioral orientation, the women of Hui Nationality of Yanglan began to leave the home and take part in all sorts of economic activities and are now the main leaders in making fortunes.
4. Continuation and development of traditional cultures.
Hui is a Muslim nationality. The traditional cultures of the Hui Nationality are all deeply influenced by Muslim cultures. In order to carry forward and develop traditional cultures, the Hui people of Yanglan took certain measures as follows:
The construction and reconstruction of mosques is a matter of prime importance in spreading and developing traditional cultures. About 6 mosques were constructed or reconstructed in the 1990s.
Training local religious professionals. More than 10 outstanding youths were sent abroad to study in the Muslim schools of Saudi Arabia, Iran and some other countries and they were appointed as deans, imams or engaged in religious education after graduation.
Popularization of religious knowledge among the youth. Religious education in every mosque.
Abiding by the canons and ceremonies of Islam both in religious activitiesand everyday life.
* 廣東省民族研究所,廣東省宗教研究所
Key Words: the Hui in Hainan Province, history, urbanization
キーワード: 海南省回族,歴史,都市化

1 海南回族的历史来源
 1.1 海南的回族先民
  1.1.1 唐宋时期的穆斯林蕃客
  1.1.2 宋元二代从占城入居的伊斯兰教徒
 1.2 海南回族社区的形成
  1.2.1 共同居住区域的形成
  1.2.2 共同经济生活的形成
  1.2.3 共同语言的形成
  1.2.4 共同生活习俗的形成
2 回族社区的社会变迁
 2.1 产业结构的变革
 2.2 生活方式的变革
 2.3 价值观和行为取向的革新
 2.4 传统文化的继承与发扬
3 结束语