国立民族学博物館研究報告 2013 37巻3号

目 次
親族システムの理念と実践 ―マレーシア,オラン・アスリ社会の母系制―
Putting "Tehrangeles" on the Map: A Consideration of Space and Place for Migrants
Atsuko Tsubakihara
インド音楽の近代化とマスメディア ―ラジオ放送が北インド古典音楽と音楽家の生活世界に与えたインパクト―
米国アラスカ州バロー村におけるイヌピアットの捕鯨祭ナルカタックについて ―祝宴における共食と鯨肉の分配を中心に―
Vol. 37 No.3 2013

Hirai, Kyonosuke
The Development of Community Museums in Thailand since the Late 1980s
Nobuta, Toshihiro
Ideology and Practice in a Kinship System: The Matrilineal Kinship System among the Orang Asli, Malaysia
Tsubakihara, Atsuko
Putting "Tehrangeles" on the Map: A Consideration of Space and Place for Migrants
Research Notes
Tamori, Masakazu
Modernization of Indian Music and Role of Mass Media: The Impact of Broadcasting on Hindustani Music and the Socio-musical Life of Musicians
Kishigami, Nobuhiro
On the "Nalukataq" Whaling Festival in Barrow, Alaska, USA with a Focus on the Communal Feast and Sharing of Whale Meat during the Festival


平 井 京之介*
The Development of Community Museums in Thailand since the Late 1980s
Kyonosuke Hirai
 近年の博物館人類学的研究は,非西洋の多くの社会において,それぞれの歴史や伝統を反映した土着の博物館モデルや博物館実践が存在することを明らかにしてきた。しかしこれらの研究は,いまだ西洋の博物館モデルを前提としており,土着の博物館モデルを独自の文化的構成物として十分に評価しているとはいえない。本研究は,タイの50 のコミュニティ博物館についての調査結果に基づき,以下の二つの問いに答えることを目的とする。第一に,タイで独自に発展した土着の博物館モデルとはいかなるものであるか。第二に,なぜ1980年代後半以降にタイの各地でコミュニティ博物館が創設されるようになったのか。それはコミュニティにおいてどのような役割を果たしているか。これらの問いに取り組むことを通じ,本稿では,タイのコミュニティ博物館が土着の仏教的伝統のなかに根付くものであるとともに,タイ農村社会の変容や国家主導の開発言説の影響を受けながら,異なる立場の人びとが主体的に独自の目的や意義をみいだして利用しようとする実践の絡まり合いの結果として発展していることを示す。
 Recent studies in museum anthropology have demonstrated that in many non-Western societies there are indigenous models of museums and museum practices that reflect the history and traditions of the society in which they exist. Yet these studies have not fully evaluated the indigenous models of museums as their own cultural construction, generally taking for granted the dominance of the Western museum model. The aim of this paper is to answer two questions in terms of the data which I have collected in 50 community museums in Thailand. First, what is the indigenous model of museums in Thailand that has developed with its own history? Second, why have many community museums been established all over Thailand since the late 1980s? What kinds of role do they take in the communities? By answering these questions, this paper tries to show that, founded on indigenous Buddhist traditions, the Thai community museums have grown out of the entanglement of practices as individuals in different positions have tried to utilize them creatively, each with their own aims and meanings under the influence of changing relationships in Thai rural society and of state-led 'development' discourse.
Key Words: museum, Buddhism, temple, Thailand, community
キーワード :博物館,仏教,寺院,タイ,コミュニティ

1 はじめに
2 コミュニティ博物館小史
3 ライヒン寺博物館
3 地域文化と開発
5 土着の博物館実践
6 実践の変容とコミュニティ
7 おわりに


信 田 敏 宏*
Ideology and Practice in a Kinship System: The Matrilineal Kinship System
among the Orang Asli, Malaysia
Toshihiro Nobuta
 Although there are various types of kinship system in Southeast Asia, the cognatic kinship system has been considered predominant. The cognatic kinship system does not have a firm organizational principle, unlike the patrilineal or matrilineal. Various arguments have been put forward about the cognatic kinship system. As a result of these, concepts such as "multihousehold compound", "family circle" and "kindred" have been devised as keys to
elucidating the organizational principle of the cognatic kinship system.
 On the other hand, there are some unique kinship systems in Southeast Asia. For example, there is a society that has shifted from the patrilineal to the matrilineal kinship system, and also a society where the patrilineal kinship
system coexists with the matrilineal. In addition, some examples where a unilineal-like characteristic is seen in a cognatic society have been reported. In this article, I will pay attention to these irregular examples and consider
why the kinship systems have been transformed. To be concrete, I will clarify the background and the process of transformation of a kinship system and its mechanism, based on a case study of the Malaysian indigenous people, the Orang Asli.
Key Words:matrilineal kinship system, cognatic kinship system, Orang Asli, adat, migration

1 はじめに
2 オラン・アスリ
3 ドリアン・タワール村
4 親族システムの変容―ドリアン・タワール村の歴史
4.1 移住小史
4.2 母系アダットの導入
4.3 称号継承
5 バティン・ジャングットの時代
5.1 母系理念の実践の要因
5.2 バティンのリーダーシップ
6 ドリアン・タワール村の現在―母系理念とその実践
6.1 母系と双系の混在
6.2 理念と実践のズレ
7 考察―流動的な社会における親族システム
8 おわりに


Putting "Tehrangeles" on the Map:
A Consideration of Space and Place for Migrants
Atsuko Tsubakihara*
椿 原 敦 子*
 In March 2010, a Westwood Boulevard street corner on the west side of LA City was named "Persian Square" by the city council. This was about three decades after the mass migration of Iranians into Los Angeles began. In this essay, I will examine how this symbolic place was created after the long absence of an explicitly Iranian locale in the city. This study will also reveal that how these migrants have constructed their subjectivity depending on their location.
 I focus on several places to examine the social invisibility of Iranians in Los Angeles. Factors such as the multi-nucleation of residences and businesses; internal diversity in terms of political, class and ethno-religious affiliation; and a white-oriented mode of life have made Iranians socially invisible. There has been the possibility of a symbolic place for Iranians to emerge in Westwood, but it was not inevitable for this to be made explicit. Westwood has been a special place for many Iranians in LA; however, because of the nature of Westwood, it has long remained unnamed. Establishing a symbolic place for Iranians became possible only recently, after they were able to share lived experience in the space.
 2010年3月,カリフォルニア郡ロサンゼルス市西部のウエストウッド通りの一角が市によって"Persian Square"と命名された。1979年のイラン革命を主要な契機として,ロサンゼルスにはイラン国外最大の人口が集中しているが,ペルシア(イラン)の名を冠した街区ができたのは初めてのことである。本論文では同地区がイランからの移住者にとって象徴的な場となったプロセスを明らかにする。
*Osaka University, Graduate School of Human Sciences
Key Words: Iranians in Los Angeles, migration, space and place

1 A brief history of Iranian migration to LA
2 The settlement process and a sense of the "non-Iranian place"
3 The Westwood multiclave
4 Locating an Iranian place
5 Mapping Westwood their way
6 Conclusion


田 森 雅 一*
Modernization of Indian Music and Role of Mass Media:
The Impact of Broadcasting on Hindustani Music and
the Socio-musical Life of Musicians
Masakazu Tamori
 19 世紀末期以降の英国植民地支配下におけるナショナリズムの高揚のなか,北インド古典音楽(ヒンドゥスターニー音楽)の改革者たちは,その音楽を国民音楽化するにあたって,伝統的な流派であり社会組織であるガラーナーに伝わる音楽財産を収集・分析してその理論と歴史を体系化しようと試みた。そして,ガラーナーに伝わる口頭伝承としての音楽財産の記譜化や出版活動,全国的な音楽会議や学校教育活動などを展開していった。一方,ガラーナーの音楽を育んだ宮廷の庇護を失った楽師とその末裔たちは,新たなパトロンを探していた。
 本稿は,そのような古典音楽の国民音楽化の流れと時期を同じくするマスメディアと音楽産業の変化,とくに20 世紀中葉において飛躍的に発展を遂げたラジオ放送(All India Radio)が音楽家たちの新たなパトロンとして,ヒンドゥスターニー音楽とガラーナーの近代化,そして音楽家の社会生活に与えたインパクトについて整理と検討を試みる。
 The pioneers of North Indian Classical Music (Hindustani Music) made efforts to systematize and standardize the theory and reconstruct the history of Indian music by gathering and analyzing the musical assets of gharānās, the traditional schools and social organizations of Hindustani music, to make it a national music in the vein of the nationalism which had grown from the end of the 19th Century under British rule. They developed specific activities; devising notations to preserve the oral traditions of each gharānā, publishing the various musical materials, holding a series of nationwide music conferences and popularizing classical music in higher education. At the same time, gharānedār musicians who had lost their relationship with the courts of rājas and nawābs, the traditional patrons of gharānās, were seeking new patrons.
 This paper is an attempt at an anthropological and socio-historical study to examine the impact of the development of the mass media and the music industry at around the same period as the above mentioned activities, the middle of the 20th Century. I will be emphasizing the role of All India Radio as a new patron of musicians through its broadcasting and its impact on the modernization of Hindustani music, its gharānās and the socio-musical life of musicians.
Key Words:North Indian Classical Music (Hindustani Music), Music Broadcasting, All India Radio (AIR), Record and Movie Industry, Mass Media in India

1 はじめに
2 宮廷の弱体化と"新たなパトロン"の興隆
2.1 レコード産業の発展
2.2 映画産業の興隆
2.3 ラジオ放送の開始
3 全インド・ラジオ放送(AIR)における改革とその反響
3.1 「新しいオーディション制度」の導入
3.2 「古典音楽の大衆化」への取り組み
3.3 「音楽の国民プログラム」の展開
4 "新たなパトロン"としてのAIR のインパクトと音楽家の適応戦略
4.1 音楽家の生活世界へのインパクト
4.2 音楽伝統や慣習に与えたインパクト
4.3 音楽家の社会的地位やイメージに与えたインパクト
5 AIR の功罪:1990 年代以降の音楽世界 とガラーナーへの影響
6 まとめと展望


岸 上 伸 啓*
On the "Nalukataq" Whaling Festival in Barrow, Alaska, USA with a Focus
on the Communal Feast and Sharing of Whale Meat during the Festival
Nobuhiro Kishigami
 本稿では,2012 年6 月下旬に米国アラスカ州バロー村で開催された捕鯨祭「ナルカタック」について報告し,検討する。ナルカタックとは春季捕鯨に成功した捕鯨キャプテン(夫妻)と彼(ら)の集団が主催する捕鯨祭で,祝宴における共食,ブランケット・トス遊び,ドラム・ダンスから構成されている。筆者は,その中で実施される共食と鯨肉の分配に焦点をあて,ナルカタックについてアクターネットワーク論と機能分析に基づき検討を行なった。
 This research paper describes and discusses a whaling festival called "Nalukataq" held in Barrow, Alaska, USA in late June, 2012. The Nalukataq consists of a communal feast, blanket toss, and drum dance, hosted by successful whaling captains (and their wives) and their crews. The author, focusing on the communal feast and whale meat distribution during the festival, examines it by actor network theory and functional analysis.
The analysis shows that although the Nalukataq festival is organized and carried out intentionally by one or more whaling crews, it is in fact accomplished through the interaction of several human and non-human "actors" including whaling groups, villagers, God, whales, elements of the natural environment, the whaling activity itself, etc. Furthermore, the author argues that while the communal feast and whale meat distribution contribute to the cultural well-being of all the Inupiat villagers because these practices provide them with highly valued food, the practices also provide an occasion during which the villagers evaluate the host groups socially and give them social prestige.
Key Words:Nalukataq, Inupiat, whaling festival, actor-network theory, functional analysis

1 はじめに
2 データ収集および記述と分析のための
3 バロー村におけるイヌピアットの捕鯨と分配,祝宴について
3.1 バロー村の捕鯨について
3.2 バロー村の捕鯨祭および祝宴について
4 バロー村における捕鯨祭「ナルカタック」の祝宴と鯨肉の分配について
4.1 2012 年の春季捕鯨とナルカタックについて
4.2 ナルカタックの準備
4.3 ナルカタックの実施(2012年6月29 日開催の事例)
4.4 ナルカタック祭の祝宴において提供
5 検討
5.1 アクターネットワーク論によるナル
5.2 ナルカタックの機能分析
6 結語